Get to know more about us

We are a group of engineers with interest in soft tissue biomechanics research. Our work covers the whole spectrum from material characterisation of tissue and numerical simulation of biomechanical behaviour to development of medical devices and procedures. We use structural engineering analysis tools such as laboratory experiments and nonlinear finite element modelling to determine the material properties of soft tissue and to predict its response to mechanical actions. We have completed and current project on the development of medical devices and procedures, some of which are being used in clinical practice. Our group has developed state of the art laboratory facilities that provide tight control of hydration, temperature and stain rate and offer non-contact behaviour monitoring methods. Our numerical simulation is quite advanced and enables consideration of the tissue's hyperelastic, hysteretic, viscoelastic and anisotropic behaviour. Until recently, all of our work has been on ocular biomechanics but now includes applications in the musculoskeletal system, pancreas and skin. We will be happy to look into other areas depending on external interest and funding.

Meet our team


Akram Joda

Akram Joda

has a BSc (Honours) from the University of Khartoum – Sudan, an MSc from Chalmers University of Technology – Sweden, a DEA from Universitat Rovira i Virgili – Spain and a PhD from University of Leeds – UK, all in Mechanical Engineering. He worked as a teaching assistant at the University of Khartoum, a research student at Siemens AB – Sweden and a Marie Curie Fellow at the University of Leeds before joining the School of Engineering, University of Liverpool in January 2011 as a Research Associate. He joined King Faisal University as an Associate Professor in September 2014.

Project(s) with BioEG:

1- Development of a contact device to measure corneal biomechanical properties in-vivo.

2- Development of an IOP correction equation of CorVis ST tonometry.

3- Measurement of corneal stiffness in-vivo using a non-contact device.

4- Measurement of regional biomechanical properties of human eyes.

Current Position:

Assistant Professor, King Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Honorary Research Fellow, University of Liverpool.

Contact Dr. Akram


Magalhaes, R.R. received his B.Sc. in mechanical engineering from CEFET-MG, Brazil, in 2000, M.Sc. degree in mechatronics and the Ph.D. degree in industrial engineering, both from University of Bahia, Brazil, in 2008 and 2011, respectively.

Project(s) with BioEG:

Regional variation of mechanical stiffness across the surface of the human eye.

Current Position:

Professor at the Department of Engineering - University of Lavras, Brazil.

Contact Dr. Ricardo
Dr. FangJun Bao

FangJun Bao

Graduated from Zhejiang University, China in 2004 with a M.D. degree in Clinical Medicine; he completed a PhD at Wenzhou Medical University, China, in ‘Ophthalmology & Optometry’. He is currently Research Group Head in Ocular Biomechanics Group at Wenzhou Medical University. In his collaboration with the OBBG, he mainly worked on Measurement of Corneal Mechanical Stiffness In-Vivo, Patient-Specific Treatment of Keratoconus Patients Based on Collagen Cross-Linking, Development of Planning Tools for Refractive Surgeries and Improvements in inflation testing facilities.

Project(s) with BioEG:

1- Measurement of corneal mechanical stiffness in-vivo.

2- Patient-Specific Treatment of Keratoconus Patients Based on Collagen Cross-Linking.

3- Suitability of IOP correction equations for the Chinese population.

4- Development of Planning Tools for Refractive Surgeries.

5- Experimental assessment of the variations in scleral biomechanical properties associated with myopia.

6- Improvements in inflation testing facilities.

Current Position:

Research Group Head, Ocular Biomechanics Group, Wenzhou Medical University.

Contact Dr. Bao

Riccardo Vinciguerra

Dr Vinciguerra has completed his medical school in the Università degli Studi di Milano where graduated magna cum laude in 2011 with the thesis "The treatment of keratoconus with corneal collagen cross-linking: Refractive, Topographic, Tomographic, and Aberrometric Analysis" that was subsequently published in Ophthalmology in 2013. He is a known international researcher with various peer-reviewed publication mainly in the field of refractive surgery, phototherapeutic keratectomy, corneal biomechanics, corneal collagen cross-linking and corneal transplants. He is currently working as a Glaucoma fellow in the St Paul's Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital together with an honorary contract in the University of Liverpool in the department of Engineering. His current research interest are corneal biomechanics, corneal collagen cross-linking, phototherapeutic keratectomy, refractive surgery and models of regression after the ablation and corneal transplants.

Project(s) with BioEG:

1- Biomechanics of the cornea.

2- CorVis Study.

Current Position:

Clinical Glaucoma fellow in St. Paul's Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Contact Dr. Vinciguerra


Graduated as an outstanding graduate in Mechanical Engineering from the Central South University (CSU), China in 2010. He was then recommended for admission to the Postgraduate School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering at the same university. He joined the Biomechanical Engineering Group in 2011. He is now working on cornea modelling before and after the refractive surgery concerning uncertainty, aiming to progress the development of a predictive tool to assist the planning of refractive surgery procedures while taking full account of corneal biomechanical properties.

Project(s) with BioEG:

1- Numerical Simulations.

2- Software development.

3- Refractive Surgeries and Implants.

a word from group lead

We welcome visitors to our internet site and our physical group location at the School of Engineering at the University of Liverpool. The site includes introduction to our group activities, our publications and funding and our partners. If you are interested in working with us or learning more about our activities, do not hesitate to get in touch. The Biomechanical Engineering Group is a dynamic group with several exciting current and planned projects. We welcome collaboration with clinicians, scientists, patient groups and charities and industrial organisations. This collaboration has been essential in the past in achieving our objectives and helping us grow in expertise and profile to where we are now.

Professor Ahmed Elsheikh, Group Lead, Head of School of Engineering